THE CASTL'S INHABITANTS
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The Jaso family and the incorporation of Navarre to the kingdom of Castile
Social organization in Navarre during the Late Middle Ages
Medieval institutions in the kingdom of Navarre
Absolute monarchy and the end of feudalism

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Francis Xavier's family

Francis Xavier was born into an aristocratic Navarre family on the 7th of April, in the year 1506. His family tree contains the direct lineage of four important Navarrese families who had played important social and political roles within the kingdom of Navarre during the second half of the fifteenth century.

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Maternal Grandparents
The maternal grandparents of Francisco Xavier, the Azpilcueta and the Aznarez de Sada, belonged to the Navarre military nobility.
- The Azpilcueta were a titled family who possessed a tower palace in Azpilcueta (in the Baztan valley) and its corresponding lands. They belonged to the minor nobility and they had extended their roots to areas of Middle Navarre. Martin de Azpilcueta, the heir to this lineage, became lord of Javier through marriage.
- The Aznarez de Sada belonged to the high nobility. They had been lords of the castle and the lands around Javier since the middle of the 13th century. The inheritance fell to two sisters, Maria and Juana, both of whom in turn, were married to Martin de Azpilcueta in the middle of the fifteenth century.
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MARTÍN Y JUANA
ampliarMartin and Juana
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Paternal Grandparents
The paternal grandparents of Francis Xavier, the Jaso and the Atondo, belonged to the nobility in service to the crown.
The Jaso were a family that came from Lower Navarra on the other side of the Pyrenees (now part of France). They were a titled family who had entered into administrative service with the crown and belonged to the minor nobility. Arnaldo Perez de Jaso settled with his wife, Guillermina de Atondo, in Pamplona, where, thanks to the influence of his father-in-law, he obtained a high post in the Camara de Comptos (The Treasury) where he soon amassed money and gained admittance to the High Nobility.

 
Arnaldo y Guillermina
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Parents
Francisco Xavier's parents, Juan de Jaso and Maria de Azpilcueta, descended from these noble families.
Juan de Jaso studied in the University of Bologna (Italy) where he took a doctorate in law. On his return to Navarre he took up important positions within the royal administration: The Treasury, The Court and The Advisory Council. He was a faithful servant to Juan the Third and Catalina de Foix, the last king and queen of Navarre. He help a seat in the assembly council as a representative of the nobility.
In 1483 he married Maria de Azpilcueta, the heir to her family line, and she thus bequeathed the castle and lands of Javier to her husband.

 
Juan y María
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Brothers and sisters
Five children were born to Juan de Jaso and Maria de Azpilcueta: Magdalena, Ana, Miguel, Juan and Francisco.
Magdalena became a lady-in-waiting to Isabel la Catolica, Queen of Castile. Two years before Francis-
co was born, she entered the convent as a novice of the Clarisas Nuns in Gandia, in the province of Valencia. Here, she would later become abbess of the convent.
Ana, the second oldest, left her castle home to marry Diego de Ezpeleta, lord of Beire, when Fran-
cisco was just six years old. One of her grandchildren, Jeronimo, would eventually become a missionary to India.
His brother Miguel, eleven years older than Fran-
cisco, would be the future lord of Javier. He played a significant part in the rebel uprisings against the Crown of Castile after the occupation of Navarre.
Juan, who received his mother's surname, Azpil-
cueta, became a warrior knight and, like his brother, he actively opposed the Castilian annexation of Navarre.

 
Hermanos
ampliarMagdalena, Ana, Miguel and Juan, with Francisco on his shoulders
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His childhood in the castle

Francisco, the youngest of the five children of Juan de Jaso and Maria de Azpilcueta, was born on the 7th of April 1506 in one of the rooms on the west wing of the Castle of Javier within the New Palace.
The baby was baptized in the small parish church of Santa Maria, close to the castle, by the abbot Don Miguel de Azpilcueta, who was a cousin of his mother's.
In line with the customs of the time he was brought up by a wet nurse.
His father was often absent from the castle. His responsibilities to the crown meant that he was almost always in Pamplona or travelling on diplomatic missions to Castile or to France. As a result, it was his mother who was largely responsible for his upbringing.
It would seem that he received his early education within the walls of the castle and not until he definitively left behind his native land at the age of nineteen, did he move out of the castle.
Without a doubt, the major event in his childhood was the invasion of Navarre by Fernando el Catolico, King of Castile, in 1512. This event would have grave consequences for the family of Francisco Xavier.
Although his father, Juan de Jaso, initially collaborated with the new monarchy, upon his death his two elder sons, Miguel and Juan, took up arms in defence of the legitimate Navarre dynasty, in both the rebellion of 1516 and that of 1521. After the uprising in 1516 was crushed, the Regent of Castile, Cardinal Cisneros decreed that all the castles which belonged to rebel forces should have their defences pulled down. In May,1516 Francisco would have looked on as the fortifications, towers and battlements of the castle were all pulled down.
Finally, in 1524, Francis's two brothers accepted the pardon offered by Charles the First of Spain, and they returned to their castle home. The following year Francisco, now nineteen years old, decided to follow in his father's footsteps, and go abroad to study in the University of Paris.

 
Francisco
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The Jaso family and the incorporation of Navarre to the kingdom of Castile

King Fernando El Catolico, on the excuse that Navarre had failed to help the Pope in his war against France, sent an army into Navarre under the leadership of the Duke of Alba.
This invading army was largely made up of Basque soldiers (among them, Ignatius Loyola) and they occupied the Kingdom without meeting much resistance. Many Navarrese, supporters of the "Beaumonteses" faction, helped the invading army. On 25th of July, 1512, Pamplona capitulated with the condition that their traditional laws "Los Fueros" would be respected by the King of Castile and Aragon.
The family of Francisco de Xavier belonged to the "Agramontes" the political faction that opposed the invasion and stood by the legitimate dynasty of Foix-Albret in Navarre.
Juan de Jaso, Francis's father, was one of the most important men in the service of the Kings of Navarre. He had earlier been an advocate for a Castilian candidate to be husband to Catherine de Foix, as he felt that Navarre's future would be best served through a marriage into the Castilian-Aragon Kingdom. However, he accepted the marriage between Catherine de Foix and the House of Juan de Albret and he continued to serve them in important posts within the royal administration.
He negotiated several treaties between Castile and Navarre and, when the King of Navarre feared an imminent invasion from Castile, he was one of the ambassadors sent to Castile to seek to avoid the invasion.
When the invasion took place and Navarre was conquered (1512) Juan de Jaso continued to occupy his position on the Royal Council in the service of the new Castilian authorities. It would seem that he accepted the new situation and that he even swore fidelity to the new King, Fernando el Catolico. He died on 16th of October, 1515 when Francis was just nine year's old.
The political stance taken by Juan de Jaso was not shared by his two older sons, Miguel and Juan. They took up arms and formed part of the leadership in the fight against the Castile occupation.
They took part in the Agramontes conspiration to recover the crown for the Foix-Albreit lineage in 1516. The failure of this attempt brought about the consequent demolition of the defences of the Castle of Javier, including the battlements, exterior walls, bridges, towers, turrets, etc.
This chastisement did not prevent Francisco's brothers from continuing their rebellion. They rose up against the Castilian crown once more in 1521. They were brought under siege within the fortress of Fuenterrabia and honourably surrendered in 1524. They agreed to the pardon offered by Charles the First, the successor to Fernando el Catolico, and they recognized him as king of Navarre.All the rebels were given back their lands and positions. Miguel recovered his family rights. Juan was promised a post in the Treasury and he received the corresponding salary for the rest of his life although he was never officially named in that post.
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Social organization in Navarre during the Late Middle Ages

The nobles
These were the ruling class in society, the owners of the land and a warrior-class, closely attached to their king through bonds of fidelity.
Some of them were given responsibilities at court and in the defence of the realm. They belonged to the higher nobility and they had the right to representation on the Royal Council.

Hidalgo
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Below these great lords were the knights. They had the rights of nobles but did not possess great land tenures. They made up the lower ranks of nobility.
There were two main classes of nobles, depending on the service they gave to the king; military service or administration service.
The
warrior nobility was formed by families with a tradition in fighting and they were responsible for the defence of the realm. Martin de Azpilcueta, the maternal grandfather of Francis was such a case.
The
service nobility, on the other hand, held administrative posts under the King. This was the case of Arnaldo Perez de Jaso and his son Juan de Jaso, the grandfather and father of Francis, respectively.
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Nobles
ampliarHigh Nobility
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Monje
This was the dominant social group along with the nobility. The high clergy (bishops, abbots, etc) came from the nobility and they controlled the extensive properties belonging to the church. The lower clergy had no property rights and came from the poorer classes.
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Obispo
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The middle class
The urban population, resident in cities and towns, dedicated themselves to commerce, trade and crafts. They also worked in administrative posts as lawyers, scribes, notaries etc. On occasions, these positions permitted them to ascend the social ladder, and even sometimes to attain noble titles
The great middle-class families held control of the most important towns and they also had the right to be represented at the parliament.

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Comerciantes
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The peasants
Most of the population of Navarre at this time was made up of peasants who continued to live in serfdom as they had in earlier centuries. They had to pay various rents to the lord of their lands.
Throughout the XV century quite a few towns and valleys were granted noble titles. Thus, their populations became gentlemen or freemen, from the legal point of view. But neither their way of life nor their economic condition was much changed by this right.

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Campesina
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Medieval institutions in the kingdom of Navarre

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THE KING
Maximum power was in his hands and he took decisions in all kinds of matters.
All the institutions in the realm were at his service and through these his ruling presence was felt at all levels of society.
Among these institutions the following stand out:

REGENT
During long periods of the XV century, the king and queen were absent from Navarre and the governing of the realm lay in the hands of a regent. This position would later become known as that of viceroy.
ROYAL COUNCIL
The government body which advices and aids the King in his tasks. It also encompasses the functions of the Supreme Court of Justice.
ROYAL COURT
The Court of Justice for the entire realm, but its decisions could be appealed in the Royal Council.
PARLIAMENT
This entity was made up of nobility, high clergy and city representatives. These three groups embodied the representation of the whole of Navarre society before the King. They consented to fulfil the financial needs of the king or the execution of new taxes and any changes in the laws.
TREASURY
The body responsible for the control of the kingdom's accounts, the income and expenses of the royal accounts.
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Absolute monarchy and the end of feudalism

From the XV century on, the concept of the modern state takes shape in Europe, characterized by the concentration of all power in the hands of the king. This is what is called absolute power. Faced with the political and economical disintegration of the Middle Ages, a new type of state organization appears in western Europe which is characterized by a concentration of power, by the unification of geographical territories and areas with common interests. This development also took place in the case of the Spanish monarchy.
The Spanish monarchy did not come about by chance but was rather the logical consequence of the new economic, social and political circumstances.
Thus, the new economic system called capitalism which developed in Europe needed a strong central power to deal with the joint industrial and economic organization of the country to compete with foreign countries. This protection could only come from a monarch, in the same way that only the State would be capable of dominating the social instability of the period.
The authoritarian monarchy became firmly established in France, England, and Portugal and in Spain where the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon became united under the same monarchy. Neither Germany nor Italy would manage to attain this kind of territorial and political unification until the XIX century.

 
Europa en el siglo XV.
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Torre del homenaje o de San Miguel
ampliarThe San Miguel keep
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Exercises
1. Outline the political, social and economic changes which came about in the XV century and which brought the feudal system to an end and gave rise to Absolute Monarchy.
2. Look for information in the library about the events in Navarre in 1512 and evaluate their impor tance.
3. Insert the missing words in the following text:
Absolute Monarchy is the political, social and economic system which takes in the period from the fall of the ............................... until the .................................. revolutions of the XVIII.
In the political aspect it is characterized by the.................................in the social, by the division in ................................ and in the economical aspect by ......................................
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